The tropical north of Australia covers almost half of the countrys total land area, is occupied by no more than about 5% of the total population, and yet has been estimated to account for close to 70% of the countrys potential freshwater resources. The region experiences strong climatic variability, both spatially and seasonally, with large areas subject to long dry periods interspersed by short periods of torrential rain. This book presents an overview of the freshwater resources of a region that has undergone a period of intense development (agricultural, industrial and social) over recent decades and for which is predicted a continuing period of development into the future. The author describes how the availability of surface, groundwater and stored freshwater, in terms of both quantity and quality, will continue to be the major factor influencing such development. It will also highlight how the emphasis on ensuring year-round water supply has, in recent decades, shifted to one of management to ensure sustainability of this vital resource and maintenance of the ecological health of what is known to be a fragile ecosystem. This book draws on the authors 25+ years of experience as a professional biologist living and working (as a teacher/researcher) in the tropical north of Australia, a region which in light of strengthening trade and other links between Australia and its neighbouring south-east Asian countries, is likely to become of increasing international significance in the future.
The accurate identification of fish 'ear-bones', known as otoliths, is essential to determine the fish prey of marine and terrestrial predators. Fish otoliths are species-specific when combining size, shape and surface features, and can remain undigested for long periods. As a result, they can indicate which fish make up the diet of various predators, including cephalopod, seabird, marine mammal and fish species. Such studies are crucial for understanding marine ecosystems, and trophodynamics in particular. Increasingly, these methods are being used to understand the diet of some terrestrial predators, also extending to that of humans in archaelogical studies.
An entertaining look at railway events in Australia in the month of Septemberâ€”from 1848, when a meeting was called to start a railway company in New South Wales, to 2013, when the great Bayer-Garrett AD6029 steam engine was restored to working order.Author David Burke has crafted a â€˜diaryâ€™ which documents, day by day, major happenings to do with railways in Australiaâ€”from the days of steam, to diesel, to diesel-electric and electrification, covering the first trains that ran between New South Wales and Queensland, and to Melbourne.
How did a top American diplomat's contrarian views on U.S. Cold War foreign policy remain largely ignored over the course of four administrations? Dauer provides an in-depth analysis of the role of dissent in the formulation of American foreign policy in his examination of the diplomatic career of Chester Bowles, Under Secretary of State during the Kennedy Administration and two-time Ambassador to India. Based on extensive research in Bowles's personal papers, the National Archives, and presidential libraries, the book evaluates Bowles's views and why the foreign policy establishment largely disregarded them. Based on the private papers of Chester Bowles, as well as government sources, this book examines the worldview of Chester Bowles, a businessman, governor, congressman, and ambassador who participated in the making of U.S. Cold War foreign policy for nearly two decades. After acquiring a personal during the Great Depression and entering public service for one reform term as governor of Connecticut, Bowles became President Harry Truman's ambassador to India from 1951 to 1953. Named by President John F. Kennedy to be under secretary of state in December 1960, he subsequently sought to moderate the hard-line Cold War positions of the presidential administrations he served. He opposed the nuclear arms race, sympathized with LDC neutralism, argued against U.S. participation in the Vietnam War as early as the mid-1950s, voiced vigorous opposition to the abortive Bay of Pigs invasion, and consistently sought more economic aid for India. Bowles's failure to attract much support for his advice was the product of his own personality defects, his curious unwillingness to engage in bureaucratic infighting, his refusal to see the world as merely a stage for the conflict between international communism and American democratic-capitalism, and presidential administrations either unwilling or unable to consider new approaches to the Cold War. Although Bowles was in many ways a Cold Warrior, his sensitivity to the concerns of neutralism, especially in Asia, and moral compass largely missing from the calculations of the administrations he served, made him a voice that should have been considered more seriously by the administrations he served. Students of the problems of dissent and formulation of American foreign policy will find this book invaluable.
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